Sources and archives

1956 Institute – Oral History Archive | HU


The website & online databases and projects of one of the most important research centers, institutes of Hungary’s postwar history.

56 revolution | HU


Chronology and an interative map of Budapest with a database: hours of footages made during the revolution are identified (where were these footages filmed). Plus Radio Free Europe’s broadcast news could be listened.

Ancestry | EN


Ancestry is an online search engine that enables people to research information related to genealogy (the study and tracing of lines of descent). This resource can be used by students to trace their own family history, but also that of historical figures and groups of people. Because the website is easy to use, students are likely to get research results quickly, which is motivating and empowering for them.

Audio-visual Memory Collection project | HU


The project aimed to facilitate the methodological renewal of history teaching by producing videos of historical interviews, made by students, to contribute to the development of the key competencies in learning history through the applied methodology of producing the interviews themselves, and to indirectly strengthen social (inter-generational) cohesion.

A Brief History of Media | EN

Video on Youtube

In this video, Dan Gillmor (American technology writer and columnist and director of the Knight centre for digital media entrepeneurship at Arizona State University) explains the history of media in less than 6 minutes. The video introduces different types of media, explains how they evolved over time, and how media content is produced and presented. Students need this knowledge to search for historical information in the right place.

Budapest Library Image Archive | HU


The collection comprises about 100,000 books, manuscripts, periodicals and journals, about 300,000 posters and small prints, as well as 120,000 photos

Cinestore – Cultural Digital Store (by Cineteca di Bologna) | IT
David Rumsey Map Collection | EN


David Rumsey’s Map Collection is an online collection of historical maps. The collection has over 86,000 maps and related images. Students can browse the collections via theme, location, period and creator, or search for source using search terms. On the website, students can also learn about different ways of presenting historical information with a geographical component (varying from history maps to geotagging and presenting layered information).

Digital Storyteelling | HU


Website of Anthropolis Association, an organization active in the promotion of digital storytelling since 2010. They organise workshops for teaching tthe methods of digital storytelling. With the method of digital storytelling the narrator is processing her personal experience with the help of her photographs. The result of this process is a short film narrated with her own voice and illustrated with her own photographs.

Documentaries from Spanish Film Archives | ES
Eldorado | HU


The aim of ELDORADO is to provide access in digital form to documents stored in library collections, primarily to out-of-commerce publications which are practically impossible for users to buy via the traditional commerce channels. User of ELDORADO can be any citizen, regardless whether he or she is a registered reader of a certain library or not.

European Film Gateway – EFG | EN
European History Primary Sources – EHPS | IT, EN

The European Primary History Sources (EPHS) portal is an online database developed and maintained by the Department of History and Civilization and the Library of the European University Institute. The purpose of EHPS is to provide an easily searchable index of scholarly digital repositories that contain primary sources for the history of Europe. Students who are doing historical research online can browse these repositories via country, language, period, subject and type of source.

14-18 Immagini della Grande Guerra
Campi Fascisti
Stampa e Resistenza
Farnesina – Politica estera e storia. Documenti e immagini della diplomazia italiana
Manifesti politici. Banca dati sul manifesto politico e sociale contemporaneo
Archivio digitale Pio La Torre
Democrazia Proletaria
Associazione tra i familiari delle vittime della strage alla stazione di Bologna del 2 agosto 1980
Europeana | EN
Verdun, souvenirs d’histoire | Poirier, Léon

A soldier tells young children, with simple words, the story of the Battle of Verdun.

Priča o Živojinu | Dragoslav Dragan Mitrović

The story about the acquaintance of the film author with the tireless 91-year-old Zivojin Lazic and his patriotic campaigns on the battlefields throughout Yugoslavia. This time, grandpa Zivojin headed on the peace mission – to the barracks of the Yugoslav National Army in Valjevo, where he had first joined the military service of his country and from where he set off to war. That vigorous, lean man from Sumadija, with upright posture and sharp mind even in his 90 years of age, he was one of the last living heroes who inscribed the most beautiful pages of the stormy Serbian history in the last century. Brave and fearless in war and slightly naive and gullible in peacetime, Mitrovic`s hero turned into a living eulogy to the old-time Serbia and its peasant and soldier.

Der deutsche Kaiser in Venetien

Kaiser Wilhelm II. begrüßt Kaiser Karl I. von Österreich auf einem Bahnhof; die Kaiser mit Offizieren des Gefolges im Gespräch; Abfahrt im Auto; Kaiser Wilhelm II. und Kaiser Karl I. auf offenem Feld mit größerem Gefolge; Besichtigungung der Zitadelle von Udine. Flugaufnahmen der Stadt Udine. Zwischentitel: Auf dem Marsch zum Tagliamento. Deutsche Truppen ziehen mit Bagagewagen durch Udine. Abgeschossenes italienisches Riesenflugzeug “Caproni” auf der Rückzugsstraße bei Campoformido; deutsche Offiziere untersuchen Flugzeuge und Wracks auf dem eroberten Flugplatz Campoformido. Kaiser Wilhelm II. besichtigt deutsche Truppen im Hof eines ehemaligen Dogenpalastes in Passariano; Abschreiten der Front, Auszeichnung zweier Unteroffiziere mit dem Eisernen Kreuz I. Klasse durch den Kaiser; der Kaiser im Gespräch mit den beiden Unteroffizieren; Verabschiedung und Abfahrt des Wilhelms II. im Auto.


I. ‘NO BREAK THROUGH. Britain’s sons win greatest battle of history.’ Column of 18-pounder limbers move down road away from camera. 9.2-inch howitzer elevated and fired, cut with brickwork collapsing in a cloud of smoke and dust. Wreckage and an overturned wagon alongside a corduroy road running through muddy, shell-pocked ground – Passchendaele. HA.MS of soldiers eating in a trench – one cuts a slice of bread from a loaf while another offers his slice up to a mate to take a bite.II. ‘PARIS RAIDERS BROUGHT DOWN. French air warriors who won great distinction in recent battle.’ MS of French ace Michel Coiffard standing by his Spad – he smiles to the camera. Similar shot of second unidentified pilot. An American soldier guards the wreckage of a AEG G.IV (?).III. ‘TRACTOR’S TERRIFIC TEST. Before being shipped to the Western Front, American tractors are tried out in Salt Marshes which are as hard to cross as shell-broken ground.’ Caterpillar tractors tow over rough ground.IV. ‘NOT SUPERMEN. The five hundred odd prisoners taken by the French near Moncel were of poor physique and wretched appearance.’ MS of French soldiers in greatcoats lining either side of the main street of a village with their commanding officer – they watch as a column of German prisoners marches through under cavalry escort.V. ‘IN RUINED ARRAS. Pipers of the Gordon Highlanders play to the famous Regiment massed on the steps of the Cathedral.’ Pipe band performs for troops gathered on grassy bank rather than steps. Pan up to show flying buttresses of Cathedral building in background.

I. Stock battle footage.II. French air aces.III. US tractors undergo tests before shipment to France.IV. French troops escort German POWs.V. Pipers of Gordon Highlanders perform in Arras.


In Havana, Cuba, 6,000 factory hands thrown out of work by the effect of the war on trade protest outside the Congress. In Lisbon the Portuguese send troops, shown leaving by ship, to Angola (Portuguese West Africa) in case of an attack from German South-West Africa. In New York a parade led by women demonstrates in favour of immediate peace. The SS Hamburg, bought and equipped by the US Red Cross as a hospital ship, sails from New York for Europe. Italy, proclaiming neutrality in July 1914, sends troops to its mountain borders with Austria-Hungary for training. The troops march through the mountain passes, throwing up a lot of dust. Veterans of Garibaldi’s uprising and the unification of 1860 hold a mass gathering to encourage the liberation of Italians within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. An Italian Cavour Class battleship leaves harbour and practises gunnery at sea. Lord Kitchener visits General Joffre and his staff at Compiègne. He is met by Joffre, by General Foch, and by Minister of War Millerand (August 1915). They watch a demonstration from a training trench. Kitchener is also seen in London talking on the steps of a building with the Minister of Munitions, David Lloyd George. British troops (seen from a high angle) marching through a street to the cheers of the crowd, probably in France. British and French soldiers sit together at a rough table behind a lorry, talking and drinking wine. “Meanwhile the German hoards swept through Belgium.” Led by their mounted officers men of the German 36th Fusilier Regiment march though a Belgian town, and then rest by the roadside. In reaction, recruiting sergeants of the London Regiment address a London crowd calling for volunteers. The reel ends with a montage of scenes of the Western Front and the British involvement in it, mainly from the later part of the war.

The effects round the world of the outbreak of the First World War, and its progress into 1915.

Europeana Curated Dataset

On this webpage you can find a selection of datasets from Europeana that are curated and openly licenced, so that they are free to use in any way you like. Each dataset has a brief description of the content, tags that give you an idea of the content, and a link to see the actual sources. Because all the sources are copyright cleared and attributed, students can easily use these sources to create their own product, without having to worry about violating copyright restrictions

Power to the people

This virtual exhibition, curated by Photoconsortium, contains photographs of masses of people, in the late 19th and early 20th century. ”. It is divided in 5 categories: “mix and marvel”, “party crowd”, “beauty and the beast”, “combined forces”, and “standing out”. The sources in the exhibition show students different ways in which the masses are used by photographers, and the accompanying texts are written in such a way that readers understand how this use of the masses impacts on the viewer.

Visions of War

This virtual exhibition, created in the Europeana1914-1918 project, shows how artists and soldiers depicted the Western Front of World War One in paintings, drawings, watercolours and sculptures. The exhibition is divided in 6 categories: “a cooling storm”, “war machines”, “landscapes remade”, “the human cost”, “trench life”, and “aftermath”. By learning about the lives of the artists, and comparing and contrasting the artworks, students learn how to interpret these artworks as a historical sources and become aware of the need to see these in context.

Leaving Europe: a new life in America

This online exhibition, created by Europeana, uses photographs, manuscripts, broadsheets, paintings, letters, and other unique materials to chart peoples’ journeys across the European continent and their settlement in the United States. The exhibition is divided in 6 sections: “the homeland of migrant groups”, “motivations and aspirations”, “departure and arrival”, “life in America”, “nativism”, and “contact with homelands”.

Migration: writing home

This gallery consists of images of letters and cards exchanged between immigrants and their families back home. The sources help students to put themselves in the shoes of the people who moved, and the people who stayed behind. The sources can be used by students to explore the different modes of communication (postcard, photos, telegraphs), but also to look at the experiences of people who migrated, and the stories they tell.

Filmhíradók Online | HU


Newsreel archive that contains movie newsreels from the period between 1914 and The videos can be searched in a database organised according to topics, persons and locations – or even on the basis of the texts and dialogues in the records. The newsreels can be viewed in full-screen size with the aid of a player built in the browser. They can be embedded in web pages and shared on the internet. (More info in English: and unconditional usage for education and research

Filmstrip Collection | HU


This is the only private collection of filmstrips in Hungary. The analogue collection can boast of a nearly complete set of all the educational, popular science and entertainment filmstrips produced in Hungary since the 1920s, including 3,742 Hungarian produced strips.

Fortepan Image Archive | HU


Very rich online photo archive. Can be searched by location, key word or name in case of public figures. Clicking on the donor’s name leads to the collection of that family/institution. Moving the slide on the time scale the collections can be browsed by year.All of the images are licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-3.0 and can be freely used.

Gramofon Online | HU


The site publishes and promotes early audio documents of Hungarian popular culture that are preserved in a now outdated formats.

Historiana | EN
Eurocentrism in maps

This is a map created during the First World War(1914-1918). It is an example that very often, mapmakers make sure they show what they think is important and leave out what is not, in their point of view. It was the Europeans who promoted an epistemological understanding of the map as early as the 17th century. A common belief is that science heads in a direction of progress, and thus leads to more accurate representations of maps. However, this view should be analysed critically. According to deconstructionist models, cartography was used for strategic purposes associated with imperialism and as instruments and representations of power. (Europeana 1914-1918, 45708 3796, CC BY-SA

Paintings of everyday life

An insight in the work and entertainment of common people

The study of paintings of everyday life is relatively new and is called Genre Art. It is the pictorial representation from everyday life such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. These representations may be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist. Some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting. Rather confusingly, genre works, especially when referring to the painting of the Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque painting—the great periods of genre works—may also be used as an umbrella term for paintings in various specialized categories such as still-life, marine painting, architectural painting and animal painting, as well as genre scenes where the emphasis is on human figures. Painting was divided into a hierarchy of genres, with historical painting at the top, as the most difficult and therefore prestigious, and still life and architectural painting at the bottom. But historical paintings are a genre in painting, not genre works. This collection concentrates on painting, but genre motifs were also extremely popular in many forms of the decorative arts, especially from the Rococo of the early 18th century onwards. Single artists or small groups also decorated a huge variety of objects such as porcelain, furniture, wallpaper and textiles. This value of this source collection is that it tells a lot about social history, with the emphasis on the daily lives of ordinary people. Most history is taught via important people like kings, sovereigns, presidents, dictators or other leaders, while the ordinary people do not receive that much attention. With this source collection, this other side of history is given a place. The source collection is organised in a thematic order. The first part contains elements of working life, or people travelling. The emphasis is on the common people: peasant families play an important role. The second section illustrates that even in paintings that represent everyday life, differences in class appear. This is followed by a part that contains sources with people enjoying themselves, spending their free time, mostly scenes from outside. The final section is one that contains images from a little later and contains sources with (playing) children.

Trench Art

Artefacts related to World War I

At the first sight, we would perhaps not link war with art. But if we do, we probably imagine the beautiful paintings and battlefields that were made roughly until the nineteenth century. But there are many artefacts made by soldiers and other people that relate to the great conflict of 1914-1918. An artefact is an item made by human hand, that can tell us something about culture and values. In other words, besides horror, the First World War also produced artefacts. Many of the artefacts come in this collection were made in trenches. The biggest problems, beside the constant threat and danger of the battlefield, in the trenches were the terrible hygiene and danger of various sicknesses. After these, the biggest problem was boredom. Perhaps surprisingly, the trenches could be boring. The major part of the time nothing happened, as long as you did not lift your head out of them. It is perhaps not a surprise that many soldiers started to make art from everything they could lay their hands upon. In this collection, the artefacts made in the First World War, often called trench art (which does not count for all sources because not all of them were created in the trenches) are divided two categories: artefacts probably literally made in the trenches, often made from material related to battle, while the second part of the collection shows objects were probably created as memorial. Most trench art was created by soldiers. For example, chalk carvings were popular. Contemporary postcards show carvings into the “wall” of rocky outcrops and dug-outs, confirming the existence of art in the battle zone. In other words, these items had to be made in situ. Besides these items, it is fair to assume that many smaller items -rings, drawings, knives, etc.- were made by soldiers in the front line or in the support trenches, especially in the more quiet parts of the battle zone. In addition to this, wounded soldiers would be encouraged to express their artistic inspiration in the form of handicraft while they were recuperating from their injuries. In this case, embroidery and simple forms of carpentry are most commonly used.

World War I Postcards

Every Card May be the Last

Wartime postcards form a visual bridge between the military front and the home front. The cards were sent both by soldiers from the front and by their family and friends from home. The illustrations on the postcards illustrate the moral of the troops and the nation. In the beginning of the war the cards were very positive and cheerful, but as the slaughter of the trenches continued, the postcards got more grim and depressing. The postcard was “invented” in Austria in 1869, in order to increase post office business by reducing the time and delivery of letters. Their popularity quickly spread throughout Europe. At first only pre-stamped, plain cardboard postcards were used, but soon they varied in style and photographs were used as well. The post knew busy times during World War I, as millions of letters and postcards were send back and forth between civilians and soldiers. The post ranged from pre-printed cards from the trenches (“I am well”, “I am wounded”, “I am in receipt of your letter”, etc.), to commercial postcards in the villages and long letters. The messages were normally censored in order to maintain morale at the home. The civilians on the home front had a vast array of sentimental or humorous or patriotic postcards to send to their boys at the front lines. This makes the photographs and pictures wonderful and valuable social records of the war. The sources are organised in a thematic way. For example, some are clear examples of nationalism, while others depict individual heroes, are Christmas cards, official group photos, religious photos or pictures of battles.

The visual front

How official war photographers portrayed WW1.

The many photographs of World War 1 that survived till today give a visual impression of what this war was like. How fair is this impression? What do these photographs reveal about what the war was really like? This source collection is designed to help answer this question by looking at series of photographs made by official war photographers. Most of the photographs, especially the iconic ones, were made by official war photographers. Both the Allies and Central Powers used war photography as means to influence public opinion in favour of the war effort. The photographs were used in (illustrated war) newspapers and in postcards that were send by the soldiers. The images where carefully selected, scenes where often staged, victories and achievements emphasised whilst uncomfortable or confronting images where avoided.

Historical Archives of the Hungarian State Security | HU
Historical newspapers from Spanish national library | ES
Historical Newsreels (No-Do) | ES
Historical photographs and engravings from Spanish national Library, from 1850 | ES
Hungarian National Archives / Digital Archives Portal | HU


The portal was created by cooperation between different Hungarian archives and provides an unified database on the collections of these archives. Among the participating institutions are Hungarian National Archives, Budapest City Archives, County and city archives and other special archives.

Hungaricana / Hungarian Cultural Heritage Portal | HU


HUNGARICANA is a common website of Hungarian archives, museums and libraries, operated by the Library of Parliament, Hungary. The main goal to publish the cultural heritage of Hungary on one site: databases, records, documents, images, maps, etc. There are for example more than 300 000 postcards in the databese or the users can have a look at the historical maps of the Habsburg Empire.Digital content published via Hungaricana can be used freely for educational and scientific purposes

Huszadik Század – Twentieth Century| HU


This online project was initiated by history teachers. Currently it contains 26 000 articles, 37 000 pictures. The webpage recollects and publishes archive articles from old newspapers. The collection starts from 1st of January, 1900 and the editors collect clippings from the newspapers and journals of that period those were printed/published on a certain day. Users can click on any day of the last century and read a collection of texts that was published on that day in the Hungarian press. The project intends to be an Internet based newspaper that uses the press of the 20th century as its raw material. The press clippings are arranged by topic to the following categories: politics, economy, culture, science, sport, yellow press. The page is continuously developed, at the moment it contains daily collections from 1900 till 1946.
Free use for educational purposes.

In search of freedom 1968–2018 | SI


In 2018, half a century has passed since “the year that rocked the world”. Due to the fact that the year 1968 had a profound impact on Yugoslav and Slovene history, Radio-Television of Slovenia has launched this Web portal as a part of an international project to recollect and spread the knowledge on the events of that year, both in Slovenia and in the world. This portal offers interviews with people, who were involved in the events of 1968 and critical analyses by expert historians, researchers and philosophers. The culture of the year 1968 is also emphasized, so articles on everything from Hendrix to 2001: A Space Odyssey can be found here.

Képkönyvtár | HU


The Hungarian Digital Image Library has been developed by the National Széchényi Library in collaboration with 48 Hungarian libraries in 2008-2009. The aim is to provide access to well-known and less known images within and beyond country borders. The collection interest of the image library apart from the National Széchényi Library’s images comprises digital Hungarica documents descending from different collections, for instance codices, regional history picture collections, postcards, posters and other digital images (like scanned manuscripts).The images can be freely used for learning, acquisition of knowledge and entertainment. Commercial use of the images requires prior permission from the rights holder libraries.

Kobarid Museum | SI


One of the smaller Slovene museums, yet one that is probably most widely known, is dedicated to the WW 1 and particularly the Isonzo Front, which ran through the area. The museum’s website offers a concise guide through the exhibitions with quotes from ordinary soldiers and high-ranking officers mixed in the textual presentations. Shorter articles are dedicated to temporary exhibitions. The website is available in five languages.

MANDA – Hungarian National Digital Archive | HU


The database of the Hungarian National Digital Archive and Film Institute (MaNDA) is a public online collection that publishes the digitized cultural goods of Hungarian museums, libraries, archives, private collections, NGOs, cultural and educational institutes on a common surface. The aim of MaNDA’s database is to collect and systematize digitized treasures and make them accessible for the public in accordance with the copyright law. As a national aggregator, MaNDA collects digital formats of the national cultural treasures and their metadata, exports them to the Europeana Foundation, thus augmenting the public collection of the European Digital Library as well.Database records can be used according to the legal information items which can be found on the pages of each database record. Detailed legal information:

Museum of Ethnography – Online Collections, Photography Collection | HU


The biggest collection of photographs in Hungary on ethnological and anthropological themes made for documentary, scientific and artistic purposes, taken in the Hungarian-speaking territory, as well as among European and non-European peoples, from the second half of the 19th century to the present.Use with permission from the Museum

Museum of Upper Carniola | SI


The museum, which covers the territory of Upper Carniola (Gorenjska), north-western part of Slovenia, keeps a wide collection of items that are important for regional history. Some parts of it can be seen on the website, which is dedicated to the museum’s permanent exhibitions. They include a variety of items from the 20th century, particularly from the both World Wars. Temporary exhibitions are also often dedicated to these periods. The website is also available in English.

My Heritage / My Monument | HU


Site for civil protection of local cultural heritage. With the help of the interactive map users could map the historical monuments of their neighbourhood.

My Heritage / My Monument | HU


Site for civil protection of local cultural heritage. With the help of the interactive map users could map the historical monuments of their neighbourhood.



This museum, which retained its pre-1990s name to this day, hosts exhibitions, which tell the turbulent story of the city of Maribor through the 20th century. Among the emphasized time periods is the interval at the end of the WW 1, when Maribor became part of Yugoslavia through a military effort. The periods of WW 2 and the post-war industrialisation are represented as well. Short descriptions of these periods are available on the website as are also photographs of interesting exhibits from the museum’s collections. The website is partly available in English.

National Museum of Slovenia - Important items | SI

website The National Museum of Slovenia, the oldest institution of the kind in the country, boasts an impressive collection of items from the dawn of time to modern days. A few interesting items from its collections are presented on this website, complete with photographs and descriptions of their importance, also available in English. Further reading material (in Slovene) is also provided.

NAVA – National Audiovisual Archive of Hungary | HU


NAVA constitues the legal deposit archive of the Hungarian national broadcasters. Its scope of collection comprises the programmes of the national broadcasters produced in or relating to Hungary. In addition, NAVA also maintain special collections by accepting any other audiovisual content facilitating the preservation of audiovisual content as part of the cultural heritage.
The Archive started operating on January 1, 2006.
As a special feature, NAVA provides on-line access to its collection within the framework regulated by law: the database of its archives can be freely searched and the programmes can be viewed in full at the so-called NAVA-points (terminals in libraries, schools etc.)Schools have online access to the material, free for educational purposes.

Newspapers from La Vanguardia, Spanish most complete online newspapers archive, from 1881 onwards | ES


Park of Military History, opened in 2004 in former military barracks at the town of Pivka, exhibits a collection of weaponry, military vehicles, uniforms etc. The main time frame presented is the era of socialist Yugoslavia, including the period during the WW 2 and the process of the accomplishing of Slovenia’s independence. The park’s website, available in nine languages, presents exhibitions with articles, photographs and promotional videos.

Photo archive of the Museum of contemporary history | SI


The main digital archive of Slovene photography in the 20th century. This easily navigable website offers a glimpse into the vast collection of photographs kept in the Museum of Contemporary History in Ljubljana. Motifs on photographs, many of which are rarely seen in public, range from the trenches of the WW 1 and span all the way to the Slovene Independence War in 1991.

Pictorial Historical Chronology of Hungary | HU


The database follows the history of Hungary and the timeline is illustrated by different kinds of pictures and images. There are more than 12 000 images in the database.

The postcards from the past / SI


A series of articles that are published on the website of Radio-Television of Slovenia. The articles generally cover the period of 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Most of them are dedicated to the topics from the Slovene history, especially politics, infrastructure, military and well-known Slovene artists, such as writers, poets and musicians. A lot of interesting titbits from Slovene national history, that are virtually unknown even to Slovenes themselves, can be found in many well-researched articles. Another important element of the series are pictures, which accompany every article. They were made especially for the series, so they usually cannot be found anywhere else on the Internet.

Public Heritage Map | HU


An independent website for introducing Hungarian public scupltures.

Radio-television of Slovenia - Selection of documentaries | SI

Radio-Television of Slovenia has produced a number of documentaries on different topics from history. They can be viewed free of charge – however, it should be noted that in order to view the films, the user must register on the site.

Illyrian Provinces / SI 

Between 1809 and 1813, Illyrian Provinces were a territory (established by Napoleon), which incorporated parts of modern-day Slovenia and Croatia. This documentary offers a historic evaluation of the role of this short-lived state and explains the circumstances of its formation, its political structure and its legacy. The narration, provided by historians, is accompanied by visual resources and computer animations.

The Alexandrine Women / SI

Due to the difficult economic situation, many women from Slovene Littoral region (Primorska) travelled to Egypt, where they served as maids, cooks, nannies and above all as the wet nurses of wealthy Arab families. Since the majority of them served in Alexandria, they were called “Alexandrine Women” (Aleksandrinke). This phenomenon lasted from mid-19th century to the beginning of the WW 2. The documentary presents the memories of these women and of some Egyptians, for whom they took care of when they were children. Interviews are the main part of film, archival resources are scarce.

Slovenes under Habsburgs – an Interview with dr. Andrej Rahten / SI

Some territories, which today belong to Slovenia, became a part of Habsburg domain in the 13th century and they kept being possessed by the dynasty for more than 600 years, until 1918. In this documentary the backbone of the story is the interview (filmed in the monumental halls of Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum in Vienna) with the historian dr. Andrej Rahten, who mostly talks about Slovene relations with the Habsburgs in the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Some other topics, such as nationalism and culture of that period, are also covered and illustrated with the help of visual resources.

Ivan Hribar – a Mayor for All Times / SI 

Between 1895 and 1910 a liberal politician, named Ivan Hribar, was the Mayor of today’s Slovene capital Ljubljana. He transformed this provincial, earthquake-damaged town into a middle European city with remarkable architecture, electricity, running water, social institutions, etc. In this documentary feuilleton, Hribar’s role in the modernisation of Ljubljana is explored through narration of historians and old photographs, with the guidance of “Hribar himself” –an actor impersonating him.

A Revolutionary in a Cassock – Janez Evangelist Krek / SI 

This documentary explores the life and work of Janez Evangelist Krek, 19th and early 20th century Christian Socialist politician, priest and author, whose main objective in life was to improve the status of Slovene working class and peasants through the social welfare. Many archival photographs and films are used in the documentary and a number of Slovene historians contribute to the film. The main narrative is led by “Krek himself” through his writings and an actor who impersonates him throughout the film.

The Backgrounds of the Heir Apparent’s Death / SI

This documentary presents the life and historic role of Austro-Hungarian heir apparent Franz Ferdinand, whose violent death in Sarajevo sparked the fire that started the First World War. His views on Slavs in the monarchy and future plans for the reorganization of the monarchy are also explored. The main narrator is the historian Dr Andrej Rahten, one of the main researchers of Franz Ferdinand’s legacy. The documentary has an abundance of various visual elements.

Italian “Sacro Egoismo” / SI 

When Italy was offered the territories of Austria-Hungary in 1915 in order to join the Allies, it accepted the deal, but this was only the end of a long negotiation process in which Italy presumably “selfishly” tried to get the best offer from the both warring sides. This Italian policy is the topic of the documentary. The complex history and still controversial interpretations behind that period are explained through the narration of both Slovene and Italian historians. Some archival photographs are also added.

The Russian Chapel – an Elegy Under Vršič / SI

During the WW 1 the Russian prisoners of war were forced to build a strategically important road over the Vršič Pass in north western Slovene Alps. In March 1916 an avalanche buried the work camp and nearly 120 prisoners and guards died. In memory of the killed Russians their colleagues built a chapel dedicated to Saint Vladimir that became a symbol of friendship between Slovenia and Russia. These events are presented in the documentary by old and modern visual material and by experts’ narrations. A couple of artistic intermezzos with dancing and music are added.

The Hell on Doberdob – an Interview with Vasja Klavora / SI

During the WW 1, the village of Doberdob (today Doberdò in Italy) was the scene of some of the toughest fights between Slovene soldiers on the Austro-Hungarian side and the Italian forces. These fights are remembered in the famous war song “Doberdò, the grave of Slovene lads”. The basis of this documentary is the interview with Vasja Klavora, an author of a number of books about the Isonzo front. He uncovers some less known pieces of information on the fights around Doberdob. Many panoramic shots and archival visual sources are added throughout the documentary.

The Miracle of Caporetto / SI

The twelfth battle at Caporetto (today the Slovene town of Kobarid) in the autumn of 1917 was the decisive offensive on the Isonzo Front in which Austria-Hungary with Germany managed to completely defeat the Italian army and push it tens of kilometres into their territory. With the help of archival films, documents and narration by Slovene and Italian historians, this documentary explores the organization of the offensive, its course of action and the influence it had on both parties. Archival recordings are combined with modern ones which show the today’s state of the First World War relics in Slovenia.

Women in the Great War 1914–1918 / SI

The role of women in the WW 1 was, until recently, often unnoticed. The documentary explains that women fought their own war at home, while their husbands and sons were on the front: they had to take care for their families, to work in jobs, which were traditionally intended for men, to help the sick and the wounded, to work all days in the field, to wait in lines to provide food for themselves and their children. They also became politically active. The documentary is focused on Slovene women. The central narrative is told by the historian Dr Petra Svoljšak and a lot of visual elements are added.

The Republic of Prekmurje 1919 / SI

Situations, in which Slovenes found themselves at the end of the WW 1, were complicated on every territory, but the one that strikes us as the most complex was in the region of Prekmurje. Inhabitants of Prekmurje went through nine different regimes in the period of ten months. The most interesting of them is a one-week period in 1919 when Prekmurje declared independence and itself became a “sovereign country”. The circumstances of those events are presented in this documentary through photographs, old films and interviews with historians. Some parts are reconstructions of historic events, interpreted by performers.

The Republic of Vinica / SI

An idea similar to the one in Prekmurje was also born in Vinica, a small village at the very southeast of Slovenia. In 1919, the villagers launched unrest due to problems with stamping paper money and organised separation from Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Their republic only lasted for three days before it has been violently disbanded. The documentary, which presents this unusual piece of Slovene history has an interesting format: it is almost entirely comprised of acted scenes, but actors talk to the camera as their respectable historic characters explain their beliefs, views, interpretations and decisions to the viewer as if they were in a court process.

School Under Fascism: Karst in the Interwar Period / SI

This documentary explores the assimilation policy of Slovenes in the Karst region (Kras), conducted by Fascist Italy, in the interwar period, when Slovene Littoral became a part of Italy. The film is a combination of interviews with a number of witnesses from that period and reconstructed scenes which try to recreate big pressure, which young Slovenes had to endure every day in schools.

remembering the Members of TIGR / SI 

Revolutionary antifascist Slovene and Croatian organization TIGR (an acronym for Trieste – Istria – Gorizia – Rijeka) was one of the earliest antifascist movements in the world. The story of this formation, right until the underestimation of its role in the post-war Yugoslavia, is told with the help of archival written and visual sources and interviews with both witnesses and Slovene historians.

Andrej Gosar: a Thinker at a Turning Point in Time / SI

This documentary is an example of remembering forgotten Slovenes who tried to coordinate different ideologies or lines of thought. Andrej Gosar was a politician, sociologist and economist who supported Christian socialism. Because of that, he was quite unpopular with both right-wing and left-wing Slovene politics of the inter-war period. The story of his life is told through photographs, film inserts, interviews with experts and acted scenes, while the narration is based on excerpts from Gosar’s works.

Surrounded City – Along the Barbed Wire of Occupied Ljubljana / SI

In February 1942, the Italian occupation authorities surrounded Ljubljana with barbed wire so that connections between the city and its surroundings would be cut. Ljubljana spent 1171 days surrounded by this wire. The first half of the documentary presents this period of Ljubljana’s history, especially with archival photographs, documents and memories by interviewees. The other half is dedicated to the construction of the Trail of Remembrance and Comradeship which follows the location of the former wire. Even to this day, the Trail is the Green Ring of Slovene capital and it successfully combines recreational activities and historical memory. Each year a special events like walking and running around Ljubljana, takes place.

Twilight of Man – Ravensbrück / SI

This documentary is about Ravensbrück, the German concentration camp for women, located north of Berlin. This is the oldest film among all that are listed here. It was filmed in 1980, when Yugoslavia opened a memorial room in former camp. The film jumps back and forth in time and explains (among other things) the establishment of the camp, the daily life of Slovene women, who were interred there, the horrific medical experiments on victims and the legacy of Nazism that persists to this day. The story is told through archival letters and interviews with surviving women. The unpleasant, eerie tone of this film gives an insight into the horrors that happened in the camp.

Enforced Mobilization of Slovenes in the German Army 1941–1945 / SI

One of the more controversial problems of the WW 2 in Slovenia is the question of Slovenes, who were forcibly mobilised by the German army. After the war, they were declared enemies of the state and no efforts were made to understand their difficult position. Only after 1991 their stories became more publicised. This documentary is almost entirely composed of interviews with former mobilised Slovenes who share their experiences in the army.

Franja / SI 

Among the most famous hidden partisan hospitals during the WW 2 was hospital Franja, named after the medical doctor Franja Bojc – Bidovec, who worked there. Her life story is the subject of this documentary. It is told with a combination of narration from Bojc’s writings and a series of segments re-enacted by performers.

The Cross and the Hammer / SI

Jože Lampret was a man, who combined beliefs that today seem, to put it mildly, unlikely: he was a partisan and a Catholic priest. He had to endure confrontations from both sides and he didn’t always fare well. Lampret’s life is unknown even to the majority of Slovene audiences and is therefore presented in this film. A great deal of shots are symbolic or have an aesthetic function, so the historic information is primarily based on narration and not on visual material.

Hitler’s Bible / SI

This documentary delves into the mysterious and dark world of Nazi mysticism and it presents some recent discoveries about the German plans from 1943 to build the Wotan’s Temple on the island in the famous Slovene lake Bled. The film incorporates a variety of visual sources, comments by expert historians and performed parts that reconstruct some historical events.

Stolen Childhood /SI

Among the tragic chapters of the WW 2 in Slovenia are the so-called Banditenkinder – the children of Slovene partisans, who were taken away from parents and sent to Germany for a “proper” re-education. This emotional documentary presents stories of some of those former children through interviews and photographs.

“Illegal Children” – the Hidden Children of the Occupied Ljubljana / SI

During the Second World War, when Ljubljana was surrounded by the barbed wire, the Liberation Front came up with an intricate system to take care of the children of absent partisans, activists, prisoners, hostages, etc. They were in secrecy sent to foster families and provided with food, clothes, food ration cards and other necessities. The system worked very well and only one “illegal child” was found by the enemy. The stories of those children are explored in this emotional documentary. Its backbone are the interviews with former “illegal children”; only a few parts are reconstructions with actors.

The Children of Petriček / SI

After the WW 2 new socialist regime opened a camp for the “enemies of the state” in Teharje. Among them were children, but in June 1945 they were separated from their parents and sent to children’s internment camp in Petriček. The documentary is a series of emotional interviews with people, who were interred in Petriček with not much other archival sources. The film is entirely shot in black and white.

We Don’t Want White Bread / SI 

This documentary covers a topic that is generally not well known in Slovenia – post-WW 2 period in the Soča Valley. It explores the views of inhabitants of the valley after they survived Italian, German and partisan rule and were subsequently faced with allied forces, which controlled the area until 1947. Film is a combination of interviews with witnesses of that era and narration by historians, accompanied by inserts from archival films.

The Town on the Meadow / SI

In this documentary, the history of Nova Gorica is explored, which began only in 1948 with the beginning of building this town after Yugoslavia definitively lost older Gorizia to Italy. Interviewees in the documentary, mostly first settlers of Nova Gorica, paint a vivid picture of the task that was given to them: to change newly built empty blocks of flats in the middle of nowhere into a prosperous socialist city. The film also raises the questions on the identity of the young city, particularly after the abolishment of the border with Italy after Slovenia’s joining the EU.

The Struggle for Slovene Littoral / SI 

This documentary is an amalgamation of seven news stories, which were prepared for the TV Koper – Capodistria in 2013. The film is therefore a collage of photographs, videos, interviews and other media that reflect the turbulent years after the end of the WW 2 in the region of Slovene Littoral (Primorska).

Gotenica – a Mysterious Place of Concealed History / SI

Gotenica is a settlement in the municipality of Kočevje, which is famous as the location of underground complex, built after the WW 2, which would house Slovene communist leadership in a case of emergency. Until the attainment of Slovene independence the complex was a guarded secret, and only after 1991 the details on its existence were disclosed. This documentary provides interviews with people, who helped to build the complex, (former) natives of Gotenica village, the representatives of Slovene police (which uses the complex as its training ground) and historians. Rarely seen recordings of the complex can be also viewed in the film.

Stasi – History, Documents, Memories / SI

The notorious East German secret police Stasi operated between 1950 in 1990. In this short documentary main narrator is the deputy director of the Stasi archive, who explains the rise and fall of this organization and its legacy. The interview is interwoven with inserts from historic footage.

Strength and weakness of Slovene liberalism / SI

At the end of the 1960s, a number of liberal communist politicians emerged in Yugoslav politics, whose primary goal was to reform the rigid system, which was created by the older generation. In Slovenia, the symbol of such liberalism was the President of the republic’s local government Stane Kavčič. Unfortunately, he was anything but rewarded for his activities, as this documentary shows. The film is almost entirely comprised from archival videos which often talk for themselves. The narrator’s voiceover fills in the remaining blanks.

The Rally of Truth / SI 

The so-called Rallies of Truth were a series of huge popular meetings (widely known as the “anti-bureaucratic revolution”) orchestrated in the 1980s by the Slobodan Milošević government in Serbia in order to strengthen the nationalist agenda and to elect officials allied with his policy. In Slovenia, at the time near the end of its existence within Yugoslavia, this kind of rally was also planned, but it has been prevented by the Slovene police. This short documentary combines archival videos and interviews with some of the most important Slovenes, who were involved in this affair.

On Palm Sunday, Come to Voting Polls and Seize Your Future! / SI 

On April 8th, 1990, Slovenia has organised the first free and democratic elections after many decades. Many candidates from the political parties of a wide political spectrum were nominated. This documentary explains the preparations for elections and their consequences, primarily through the use of archival videos.

The War for Slovenia / SI 

Slovenia gained its independence with a combination of political action, diplomatic activities and a ten-day armed conflict with Yugoslav People’s Army in the summer of 1991. This documentary, albeit short, compiles a number of archival videos, which vividly present this period of Slovene history.



The town of Kočevje and the woods that surround it are especially known as the former centre of German settlers, the Gottscheers, and as the centre of Slovene partisan movement during the Second World War. Exhibits in the town’s regional museum are mainly from this time frame. Some of them are presented in the digital collection on the museum’s website and they are accompanied by short descriptions.



During the 20th century, the region of Slovene Littoral (Primorska) was a part of quite a few countries. Its history is documented in the museum in the coastal town of Koper, while the museum’s website offers a couple of photographs from the exhibitions and descriptions of certain exhibits. The website is also available in English and Italian.



Like Maribor, the nearby city of Ptuj was also heavily germanised by the end of the 19th century. Its recent history is presented in this museum and can be also viewed through photographs and (Slovene) descriptions in a PDF-document on the museum’s website. A link to richly illustrated catalogue of the exhibition To Live with the War: Ptuj District during World War I can be also found on the site.

Sistory | SI

website The name of the site is a portmanteau of Slovene history. This is one of the main portals from all we were able to locate. The material published on Sistory is seemingly endless. It includes – but is not limited to – archival documents from Slovene archives and libraries, old newspapers, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, maps, a series of monographs and history books, many scientific history journals, dissertations, a database of all known Slovene victims of the Second World War and a collection of death masks. All of the published material is available for use free of charge. News about events, lectures and exhibitions are also to be found on the site.

Way Back Machine | EN


The WayBackMachine, developed and hosted by the Internet Archive, is an online archive for websites. Billions of websites are included in the archive, and are made accessible for all users. This resource helps students to search for historical information that is no longer online. Using the WayBackMachine makes students think about the short-lived nature of online information, and the challenges that this faces for current and future historians.

World war I 1914–1918 | SI


The Web portal dedicated to the First World War was created in 2014 to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the beginning of the WW 1. The portal is regularly updated with new articles and pictures. Among the published articles to be found on the site are excerpts from war diaries of Slovene soldiers, relevant documents and pictures, which were sent to administrators from the readers, links to documentaries and news on events or commemorations in remembrance of the fallen victims. | SI

website This Web portal is dedicated to both world and Slovene history. Many short articles with a number of photographs are published here regularly, usually in the “on this day in history” format. A number of more in-depth articles can be also found, e. g. abridged versions of diploma theses or papers written by students. The recommendations of historical films should also be noted. The website is a good source of information about events on history all over Slovenia and it provides useful links to other relevant sites.